Rabu, 21 Desember 2011

My scription

THE STUDENTS’ ABILITY IN WRITING EXPLANATION TEXT
AT GRADE XI AKUNTANSI SMK NEGERI 1
PADANGSIDIMPUAN

A. Background of the Problems
English is the most widely used in the world. It plays very significant roles in many aspects of international affairs as a means of international communication. In this global era, human being is faced by many problems. One way of anticipating, the problems is by changing the education system should be designed based on the four basic goals namely learning to know, learning to do, learning to live together, and learning to be self owner.
The target of teaching English at school is not only for understanding book written in English but also for communicating. The target can reach by the students if the students always practice English as oral and written at school. English is an International language , it is used for communicating among nations in the world. The students must mastered English to communicate with other people which come from another countries, so the students hope to mastered English as oral and written.
English has four major aspects categorized into two main ways: receptive competence and productive competence. Receptive competence consists of two different modes of language behavior: listening and reading, which also obviously includes interpretation of contexts and relational tasks. Productive competence consists of two modes: speaking and writing, include use of non-verbal signs and cues, and writing. In turn the four types of competence can be organized two other ways, as oral competence (listening and speaking) and as written competence (reading and writing).
Related to the curriculum, practitioner observes and analyzes education system and implements competence based curriculum. It was introduced in 2002 and has been implemented fully in 2004. It is stressed in developing the basic competence such as making the students able to reflect their own experience to express their idea, their feeling and their understanding to their own cultures and to participate in social community who used the language. In 2004 English curriculum, English functions as a medium in learning science, technology and arts which are emphasized the teaching of English on the four skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing which are taught interestedly.
The schools has a curriculum about writing skill is taught by English teacher. This curriculum is very important to the students to develop their writing skill. The curriculum stated that students must be able to express the idea in written language in terms of short functional text and simple essay to increase knowledge and capability in daily life. This curriculum hope to increase the students’ skill in English, especially in writing.
There are many kinds of the text learnt by students Senior High School in learning the writing skill. They are report, recount, explanation, letter and news item. Explanation text is one of them that are really important to teach by the students. KTSP hoped that students are able to write all of the test type. Explanation text is a text to explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena. Based on the result during teaching practice program (PPL) in SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan, the researcher saw that there are many students who learnt English found difficulties in writing explanation texts. They cannot write good explanation texts and they can’t arrange good sentences in an explanation text.
To make right composition students must know the writing structure in English, which the students must have knowledge. Writing is very important to the students in making explanation text. By knowing explanation text students will be easier to explain a process or procedure or to give directions or instructions.
Writing is the process of transferring idea, feeling and though from the writer, to the reader, writing also is processes and the writer is able to make communication with audience through his sentence. The process in the writer should be able to make the reader understand what he means through his sentences.
Researcher has asked the students of SMK about their writing ability, most of them responded that writing is difficult. They did not know the generic structure of the text, the lexicon-grammar, using tense, structure, vocabulary, coherence, and cohesion. The students are considered quite good in explanation text , if the students mastered above the elements.
Based on the above explanation, the writer wants to see students’ ability in writing explanation text at SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan. The title of this research is the Students’ Ability in Writing Explanation Text at Grade XI Akuntansi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
B. Focus of the Problems
Based on the identification of the problems, the researcher focused only on the students’ ability in Writing Explanation Text at Grade XI Administrasi Students SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan. It was about an introductory, general statement, sequenced explanation, and conclusion.
C. Formulation of the Problems
From the above explanation, the writer wants formulate on below questions:
1. How is the ability of Grade XI Administrasi students at SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan in writing explanation text?
2. What are students’ difficulties in writing explanation text at Grade Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan?
3. What were the solutions given by the English teacher?
D. Purposes of the Research
Purposes of this research are:
1. To know students’ ability at Grade Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan in writing explanation text.
2. To know students’ difficulties at Grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan in writing explanation text.
3. To know the solution are given by teacher at Grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan in writing explanation text.
E. The Significances of The Research
The findings of this research are dedicated to:
1. To improve all students ability in writing explanation text, especially at Grade XI Administrasi students SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
2. To improve the methods of teaching English to increase motivate the students in teaching English, especially in making writing explanation text.
3. To the headmaster of SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan as supervisor to supervise the development of students and teacher in English learning process.
4. To other researchers who will researcher the some topic.
5. As treasure in English Education
F. Definition of Key Terms
To avoid ambiguity, the researcher clarified the term used in this research as follows:
1. Student: a person who is studying at a university or college. The students be intended in this research is at Grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
2. Ability is a capacity or power to do something physical or mental, like: cleverness, intelligence a man of great or special natural power to do something well. Ability meant also skill to perform certain action both physically and mentally both before and after receiving training. The ability is intended in this research is the students’ ability in writing explanation text at Grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
3. According to R.R.K Hartmann: Writing is the process of result of recording language in form conventional shed visible marks or graphic signs on a surface. According to Sanggam Siahaan said that, writing is the productive language skill it is the skill of a writer to communicate information to a reader or group of readers. Writing is intended in this research is the students’ ability in writing explanation text at grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
4. According to Gerot and Wignell explanation text is to explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena. In book Pradiyono explanation text is to explain why an object exists as it is or to describe how an object works. It is also to describe the process involved in the formation or working of an object or phenomenon.
Explanation text is intended in this research is the students’ ability in writing explanation text at grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
5. Grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan is the senior high school in Padangsidimpuan city.
So, be intended in this research is focused the students ability in writing explanation text at grade XI Administrasi SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
G. Theoretical Description
1. Writing
In teaching and learning English, it needs an object as the problem should be taught; in this study the writer only focuses on writing because it is including an important lesson at every school now days. David Nunan stated that: “writing is both a physical and a mental act the most basic level. On other hand, writing is the mental work of inventing of ideas. Thinking about how to express them and organizing them into statements and paragraph that will be clear to reader. It also both a process and a product, the writer imagines, organize, drafts, edits, and reads. This is the process of writing is often cyclical and sometimes disorderly, ultimately, what the audience sees, whether it is an instructor or a wider audience is a product an essay, letter, story, or research report.
H.R Tarigan stated that: “Menulis ialah menurunkan atau melukiskan lambing-lambang grafik yang menggambarkan suatu bahasa yang dipahami oleh seorang, sehingga orang lain dapat membaca lambing-lambang grafik tersebut. Kalau mereka memahami bahasa dan gambaran grafik itu.Menulis merupakan suatu representasi bagian dari kesatuan-kesatuan ekspresi bahasa”.

(Writing is to describe the graphic symbols which describe a language is understood by someone. So the others can read the graphic symbols if they understand the language and the description of graphic writing are representation of the expression of language).
So, based on the statements above writing was things happen in the social world, and much of that social world is embodied in previous pieces of writing. Writing involves other people. You respond to and build on other people’s statements; you then write for other people to read.
2. The Purpose of Writing
As the guide line there are purposes of writing, they are:
a. Informative writing, it means that the purpose are to give information, direction, or ideas
b. Narrative writing it gives purposes a personal or imaginative expression in which the writer procedures stories or essay.
Menurut Hugo Hartig dalam bukunya Henry Guntur Tarigan, tujuan menulis adalah
a. Tujuan penugasan
Tujuan dari penugasan itu sebenarnya tidak mempunyai tujuan sama sekali, menulis sesuatu karena ditugaskan bukan kemauan sendiri.
b. Tujuan alturistik
Tujuan alturistik bertujuan untuk menyenangkan para pembaca, menghadirkan kedudukan para pembaca, menghadirkan kedudukian para pembaca.
c. Tujuan persuasive
Bertujuan untuk meyakinkan para pembaca akan kebenaran akan kebenaran gagasan yang diutarakan.
d. Tujuan informasi
Bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan atau menyatakan diri sang pengarang kepada para pembaca.
e. Tujuan pernyataan diri
Bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan atau menyatakan diri sang pengarang kepada para pembaca.
f. Tujuan kreatif
Tujuan Ini erat hubungannya dengan tujuan pernyataan diri, tetapi “keinginan kreatif disini melebihi pernyataan diri dan melibatkan dirinya dengan keinginan norma artistic atau seni yang ideal, seni idaman, tulisan yang bertujuan nilai-nilai artistic, nilai-nilai kesenian.
g. Tujuan pemecahan masalah
Tulisan yang bertujuan bahwa penulis ingin memecahkan masalah yang dihadapi penulis menjelaskan, menjaminkan dan menjelajahi secara cermat pikiran-pikiran dan gagasan-gagasannya sendiri dan diterima oleh pembaca).

(According to Hugo Hartig in Henry Guntur Tarigan said that purposes of writing are:
a. Assignment purpose
This purpose is there is no aim at all the writer something because as just a duty, it is not self-will.
b. Altruistic purpose
This purpose is to place the readers to bring the readers sadness.
c. Persuasive purpose
This purpose is to make sure the readers of the truth of ideals is shared.
d. Informational purpose
This purpose is to give information or explanation to the readers.
e. Self-expression purpose
This purpose is to introduce or defined author to the readers.
f. Creative purpose
It has deep relation with self-expressive purpose but it has “creative will”. It is more than self-expression and involving herself with will to reach artistic norm or ideal art. So, it is purpose is to reach artistic value and art value.
g. Problem solving purpose
The writer wants to solve the problem is faced. The writer wants to explain, to clear, and to explore also to search the thoughts and ideas carefully to be understood and received by the readers.
The writing problem for students is many think filling the blank page is the main problem of writing. If the student thinks that, the students star to solve the problem by looking for good opening sentence.
Writing is very important for all people, writing involves other people. You respond to and build on other people’s statements; you than write for other people to read. As a reader and a writer. You converse with others over the written page. To converse effectively you need to know what people’s minds are on others, how you want to affect other people, and how you plan to achieve that effect. Thus writing well requires that you understand the writing situation, grapes the particular writing problem, and carefully plan your writing strategy.
3. Text
a. Definition
Text is the main body of printed or written matter on a page. According to Sanggam Siahaan and Kusno Shinoda said a text a meaningful linguistics unit in a context, which text is divided by two parts that is spoken text and a written text, where spoken text is any meaningful written text, it can be a notice or a direction or an advertisement or a paragraph or an essay or an article or a book etc. Further Otong Dzuharie Setiawan said that “Text is form the discourse have the communicative selected and realized with selected language marking. So text is printed or written that has meaningful, it can be a notice or a direction or an advertisement or a paragraph or an essay or an article or a book etc.
b. Kind of text
According to Otong Setiawan Djuharie, there are many kinds of text learnt by students of Senior High School in learning writing skill. They are description, report, hortatory, discussion, procedure, explanation, news item, narrative etc.
a. Teks description bertujuan untuk menggambarkan seseorang, sesuatu, suatu tempat, seekor binatang. Teks description menyodorkan banyak informasi secara gambling
b. Teks report mengupas suatu hasil pengamatan, penelaaha, penelitian, observasi atau studi tentang benda, binatang, orang atau tempat.
c. Teks eksplanation bertujuan untuk menerangkan proses sesuatu atau membahas suatu teori, faham, fenomena, ideology dan hal yang berarti dengan fenomena alam.
d. Teks discussion bertujuan untuk menodorkan dua atau lebih pendapat, ide, pandangan, argument akan suatu perkara, topic, permasalahan dan fenomena.
e. Teks procedure membicarakan suatu proses yang dapat diikuti atau di praktikan secara mungkin alami.

1) Description
Description text aimed to describe someone, something, a place, and an animal especially; description text gave much information’s about it that can be disqualified.
2) Report text
Report text is text about observation, explanation, research or study about thing, animal, people or place.
3) Explanation text
Explanation text is to explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena
4) Discussion text
Discussion text explores both sides of an issue or the tries to present the pros and cons of an issue or the advantages and disadvantages of a particular issue to allow the reach a logical the reach a logical conclusion
5) Procedural text
Procedure or procedural text is one of the texts that are very complex to be learned by students.
4. Explanation Text
According Pardiyono explanation text is to explain why an object exists as it is or to describe how an object works. It is also to describe the process involved in the formation or working of an object or phenomenon. Gerot and Wignell stated that: “explanation text is to explain the processes involved in the formation or workings of natural or socio cultural phenomena.
According Otong Setiawan Djuharie
Teks eksplanation adalah untuk menarangkan proses sesuatu ada/terbentuk, atau membahas suatu teori, faham, fenomena, ideology dan hal yang bertali dengan fenomena alam. teks eksplanation juga dapat digunakan untuk menggambarkan atau menerangkan fungsi dari suatu benda atau alat.

(Text explanations is explain to process a certain there/formed, or discuss a theory, phenomenon, ideology and matter bestial with nature phenomenon. text explanation also can be used to describe or explain function from a thing or tool)
An explanation is a set of statements constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts. This description may establish rules or laws, and may clarify the existing ones in relation to any objects, or phenomena examined. The components of an explanation can be implicit, and be interwoven with one another. An explanation is often underpinned by an understanding that is represented by different media such as music, text, and graphics. Thus, an explanation is subjected to interpretation, and discussion. In scientific research, explanation is one of the purposes of research, e.g., exploration and description. Explanation is a way to uncover new knowledge, and to report relationships among different aspects of studied phenomena.
The genre of explaining is a fundamental language function for understanding the world and how it operates. The process of explaining is used to logically sequence the way that we and our environment physically function, as well as understanding and interpreting why cultural and intellectual ideas and concepts prevail.
George E. Wishon & Julia M. Burks in book Let’s Write English stated “The paragraph of explanation is often used to explain a process or procedure, or to give directions or instructions. Explaining is an important part of writing. The paragraph explaining a process or procedure is, in simple terms, a how to do paragraph. It explains how to perform some action or how to make something.
To write the explanation text, there is some consideration which should be care suggested by Pardiyono as stated in the table below:
Table 1
Text Element of Explanation Text

Text element Function
General statement about a particular topic to be explained Content a general statement about a topic will be explained, the places process, the happened process and the formed process.

Must Brief character, interesting and clear, which be able to stimulate interest of the readers in detail.
Sequence of explanation that describe the process, the formation, the involvement, etc In detail about explanation of the place process, the happened process or the formation process.

It very relative to answer the question “how”, which the answer as statement or declarative sentence. (question answer “how” which as interactive sentence in genre procedure)

The using of sequences markers is possible to remember the process which explained as sequence. first, second, third, or next, after, that, then, finally.

Grammatical patterns;
- Many using declarative sentence (positive or negative) in present tense form.
- The using of verbs of being, verbs of having and verbs of doing, for instances: go down, digest, lead, and kill.
Closing (optional) - Content the conclusion or statement about has just explained.

So, it can be concluded that in explanation text there are some consideration: general statement, sequence of explanation and closing. From the consideration above the research also found that the explanation text uses simple present tense in grammatical features.
a. Simple present tense
As stated above that in explanation text uses simple present tense, according to Betty Schrampfer Azar. The simple present is expresses daily habits or usual activities, as in and the simple present expresses general statements of fact. Meanwhile, according to Jayanthi Dakshina Murthy, “Simple present tense is when a verb is used to shown that an action takes place at present, it is known as the present tense”.
Related to tenses used in narrative is past tense, so the pattern of past tense is stated below.
Positive
SUBJECT + PRESENT TENSE V1
Example:
We need oxygen for life
The sun rises in the east
She always wakes up at 09.00 am every morning
My sister sometimes eats fried rice for breakfast
My plane leaves at 10.00
She goes to market every morning
The word is round
Animal lives only for food
Negative
Subject + do/does + not + v1
Example:
She does not go to market every morning
He does not do his home work
Nani and Budi do not read magazine
We do not study together every week
Question
Do/does + Subject + v1
Example:
Does Anna cook in the kitchen?
Does she go to market every morning?
Do we get more free tickets for the concert?
Does he go to Ireland every month?
Do we study together every week?
Do Nani and Budi read a magazine?
b. Grammatical features
Otong Setiawan Djuharie stated that there are grammatical features of a explanation text are, abstract noun, action verb, simple present tense, passive voice.
c. Abstract noun:
Abstract noun is usually the name of quality, action, or state considered apart from the object to which it belongs as quality, action, state. Example: freedom, liberty, thought, joy, sorrow, love, death, goodness, kindness, childhood, admission, justice, life, truth, beauty.
d. Action verb :
The action verb divided into two forms:
1) Regular Verb
A regular verb is a verb which has a normal inflection or normally added by “ed” or “d” to the infinitive form.
Example:
Add added added
Smoke Smoked Smoked

Advice Advised Advised

2) Irregular Verb
An irregular verb is a verb which does not have a normal inflection or not normally added by “ ed” or “d” to the infinitive form.
Example:
Eat Ate Eaten
Bring Brought Brought
Do did Done.
e. Simple present tense:
The simple present tense expresses habits. In eating breakfast is a habit, a usual activity.
f. Passive voice :
Passive voice is when a verb forms shows that something has been done to the subject. It is known passive voice. Example: A letter was written by Madhavi
H. Conceptual Framework
Writing is the removal of transferring at thinking or feeling into language symbol. It can also be said that writing is the effort putting oral language to written language using symbol.
Writing is one of the language skills that must be learnt by the second language learners. To be able to write in a foreign language, the students must try to practice and practice again, for instance, through writing explanation text.
Explanation is a set of statements constructed to describe a set of facts which clarifies the causes, context, and consequences of those facts. This description may establish rules or laws, and may clarify the existing ones in relation to any objects, or phenomena examined. The components of an explanation can be implicit, and be interwoven with one another. An explanation is often underpinned by an understanding that is represented by different media such as music, text, and graphics. Thus, an explanation is subjected to interpretation, and discussion. In scientific research, explanation is one of the purposes of research, e.g., exploration and description. Explanation is a way to uncover new knowledge, and to report relationships among different aspects of studied phenomena.
The generic structures used in explanation text are general statement, sequence of explanation and closing. From all these aspects can form an explanation text.
I. Research Design
The method in this research used a qualitative method. The kind of this research was a descriptive method in this research the data analyzed by students’ answer to know how were their ability to write explanation text
Descriptive research is a descriptive study determines and describes the way things are it may also compare how subgroups such as males and females or experienced and inexperienced teachers view issues and topics. L.R. Gay and Peter Airasian stated, “Qualitative approach is based on the collection and analysis of nonnumeric data such as observation, interviews and other more discursive sources of information.
Further, Abdul Aziz that copied by Burhan Bungin Analisi Data Penelitian kualitatif (Qualitative Research) adalah salah satu pendekatan utama yang pada dasarnya adalah sebuah rumpun besar metodologi penelitian. (Qualitative research is one of the main approaches that basically is a label or the name of generally from a research methodology).
Based on the method, this research will use descriptive method is used to describe the ability of the students in writing explanation text at grade XI Akuntansi of SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan.
1. Time and Place of the Research
The research was conducted one month’s December 2011; it has been done at second year students of SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan. It is located at Jl. ST. SORIPADAMULIA, No. 25, Padangsidimpuan. This place was chosen because this place where the researcher due to it was his study field practice and it’s representative to do this research.
2. Source of Data
Source of data in this research was the students of SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan at grade XI Akuntansi students in 2010/2011 academic year. In this research there are 90 students as source of data.
3. Instrument of Research
Instrument is a way to get the needed data, the writer needs instrument, which choosing the instrument, the writer should take the most appropriate one in order to achieve the expected purposes concerning to the problem of the research. In this research the instrument that used in gathering the data were observation, interview and test form.
a. Observation
Observation is a technique of collecting to gain insight on understanding the natural environment as lived by the participants. So this observation was used to know how grade XI Akuntansi students’ ability in writing Explanation text at SMK Negeri 1 Padangsidimpuan was.
b. Interview
Interview is a purposeful interaction usually between two people, focused on one person trying to get information from the other person. To get information in this research, the writer had done interview directly with the head master and English teacher.
c. Test.
Suharsimi Arikunto said, “Test adalah serentetan pertanyaan atau latihan serta alat yang digunakan untuk mengukur keterampilan, pengetahuan, intelegence, kemampuan atau bakat yang dimiliki oleh individu atau the measure the skill, knowledge, ability or talents are had by individual or group”.
The kind of the test is explanation text, there are two indicators of this test, the first is writing explanation text from the component of the explanation text, if the students can write General statement about a particular topic to be explained the students will get 30 values, if the students can write Sequence of explanations that describe the process, the formation, the involvement, the students will get 50 values, if the students can write Closing the students will get 20 values.
And the next test is arrange of the explanation in writing, which the title is “Global warming”, in this test if the students can arrange the explanation the story the students will get values 40, if the students can arrange the suitable tenses the students will get 30 values, and if the students can conclude the story the students will get 30 values.
4. Techniques of Data Collection
In a research collection data is important to get the valid data, because it really correlates for the research and collection data must be composed according with the research and must be systematic. Based on the needs of data in this research the writer used several steps as the collecting the data. In this research the writer used some techniques in gathering the data as follows:
a. The writer did observations to the school first before giving the test to the students.
b. The writer prepared a number of questions to be answered by the students.
c. The writer gave the test and the answers sheet to the students that had been filled with the limit of the time in doing the test and then.
d. After the students finished the test, the writer collected the answer of the students and analyzed it.
5. The Techniques of Data Analysis
In this descriptive research most of the analysis data was collected by test and after obtaining the data through the test, the data were tabulated and analyzed by the students’ score to know students’ ability in writing explanation text.
The steps in analyzing the data were as follows:
1. Collecting of the first and the second data.
2. Checking of the first and the second data to get the needed data.
3. Describing the data has been collected to get systematically data.
4. Drawing the conclusion based on the finding.
J. Outline of the Thesis
The outline of this research consists of five chapters, as follows:
The chapter one consist of background of the problems, focus of the problems, definition of key terms, formulation of the problems, purposes of the research, significances of the research and definition of key term.
The chapter two consists of theoretical description, review of related findings and conceptual framework.
The chapter three consists of research design, time and place of the research, source of data, instrument of research, techniques of data collection, and technique of data analysis and outlines the thesis.
The chapter four consist of the result of the research and
The chapter five consists of conclusions and suggestions.

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